Glossario

Clinical abortion
Loss of a clinical pregnancy that may occur anytime from its diagnosis upto the 20th week of gestation.

Pre-clinical abortion
An abortion that occurs before there is any clinical or ultrasound diagnosis of pregnancy

Amenorrhea
The lack of menarche in a teenager (within 16 years) or the disappearance of menstruation in a woman who has already been menstruating for a period of three previous cycles or six months.

Androgens
Male hormones (the most important is testosterone).

Mental anorexia
Refusing to maintain normal body weight for age and stature, with intense fear of getting fat.

Aspermia
No ejaculate.

Assisted Hatching (AH)
A technique of micromanipulation on the embryo at Day 3 or the blastocyst stage, which involves the incision of the Zona Pellucida before transfer to the uterus in order to aid implantation.

Asthenozoospermia
A reduced number of motile spermatozoa in the seminal fluid.

Blastocyst
Embryo at 5-6 days after fertilization.

Blastomere
A cell derived from the fertilized oocyte.


Gestational sac
The structure that develops in the early stage of pregnancy containing an embryo, usually within the uterine cavity.

Leydig Cells
Cells located in the testicle that produce testosterone under the stimulus of LH.

Cervix
Neck of the uterus

Chlamydia
Chlamydia trachomatis is a parasitic bacterium that infectes the cervix, the Bartolino gland (an excretory duct on the small lips of the vagina) and the urethra. If the infection reaches the fallopian tubes, it may cause serious conditions such as salpingitis and pelvic inflammatory disease. In man it may cause urethritis and epididymitis. Infection of the vas deferens may cause oligo-azoospermia.

Cancelled PMA Cycle
A PMA cycle in which ovarian stimulation or monitoring was carried out, but in which follicular aspiration or, in the case of a frozen embryo, did not proceed with the transfer to the uterus.

PMA cycle with aspiration
PMA cycle in which one or more follicles are aspirated, even if no oocytes are obtained.

PMA cycle with embryo transfer (ET)
A cycle in which one or more embryos are transferred to the uterus.

Embryo transfer
After 48-72 hours of development the embryos are classified and checked. Embryo Transfer takes place with the patient in a gynecological position without any type of anesthesia because it is not normally painful. After inserting a speculum the doctor guides the tip of the catheter through the uterus's neck and deposits the fluid containing the embryos into the uterine cavity. The whole procedure is simple, not traumatic, and normally does not require more than 5 minutes. After the transfer, the patient has bedrest for about 1 hour before dressing and going home. It is possible to resume normal activities immediately obviously avoiding only the most laborious and / or psycho-physical stress over the next two or three days.

In vitro fertilization
In vitro fertilization with embryo transfer (IVFET) is a technique to increase the probability of conception in couples where other fertility treatments have not been successful or are not possible. The main indication for IVF is due to an occlusion (or absence or malfunction) of the fallopian tubes, where sperm normally encounter the egg. IVF was first used successfully in 1978. At present, indications for the use of this technique have widened and include other infertility factors such as male factor, namely where there are a reduced number or motility of sperm.In the case of a very marked decrease in the number of spermatozoa, it may be necessary to undergo in vitro fertilization by ICSI, which involves the intracytoplasmic injection of a single sperm directly into the ovule. IVF is also used in cases of endometriosis and infertility of unknown causes (so-called idiopathic infertility) and in immunological infertility. Whatever the indication for IVF, the preparation and treatment protocols are the same.

 

Ovum Pick-up
Indicates the retrieval of the oocytes that is generally carried out by aspiration under ultrasound transvaginal guidance: this is considered a minor surgical procedure that can be performed in local anesthesia or sedation. The patient should, however, should not eat before hand. After a pick-up, a snack may be consumed. The pickup lasts about half an hour and is carried out with the same ultrasound technique (with a vaginal probe) used during monitoring for follicular growth control during the ovarian stimulation of the IVF program. The ultrasound guide is inserted into the vagina. When mature follicles are highlighted in the ovaries, the specialist drives a needle attached to a special aspirator through the vagina into the ovaries and inside the follicles and aspirates the follicular fluid. This is then collected in tubes and delivered to the laboratory immediately for the microscopic identification of the collected eggs. All the follicles that can be highlighted with the ultrasound will be aspirated, although probably not all will contain an ovum.

Fallopian Tube
Fallopian tubes are two thin channels about 12 inches, connecting the uterus to the ovaries. Fertilization occurs in the tubes which have a very delicate complex function of transporting the spermatozoa up the tubes and the oocyte down in the opposite direction.

Seminal vesicles
Glands that secrete a viscous and yellowish fluid that contains elements necessary for sperm nutrition.

Zygote
Diploid cell resulting from the fertilization of an oocyte by a sperm that subsequently develops into an embryo.


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