Infertility is a critical component of reproductive health with high social relevance. It has been estimated that 72.4 million couples are infertile worldwide and that 40.5 million of these are currently seeking fertility treatment.
Contributors to infertility include ovulatory (30%), male (25%), tubal (25%), coital (5%), cervical (<5%) problems and others. Also the uterine factor can be a cause of infertility. In fact, the uterine cavity and its inner layer, the endometrium, are considered to be fundamental for the implantation of the embryo and normal placentation.
Currently, the gold standard technique for uterine factor evaluation is hysteroscopy, since it enables direct visualization of the cervical canal, tubal ostium and uterine cavity and its relevant pathological disorders ( synechiae, submucosal myomas, endometrial polyps, congenital anomalies of the genital tract, endometritis,…) as well as the treatment of any detected abnormality, differently from the other indirect and purely diagnostic techniques, i.e. trans-vaginalsonography (TVS), hysterosalpingography (HSG) and saline infusion/gel instillation sonography (SIS/GIS).
The scientific community has revalued the role of hysteroscopy in the infertility work-up for its clinical relevance in the diagnosis and treatment of uterine factors and so for its potential capability to improve reproductive outcomes and reduce time to pregnancy.