Here we evaluate the presence of particular micro-organisms (bacteria and fungi) that may play a role in some pathologies of the genital system. Knowing which strain of bacterium we have present, allows our doctors to suggest a precise antibiotic therapy.
Our doctors will check the levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin (PRL) and testosterone (T) in the patients blood. Altered levels may affect the production of sperm.
Ultrasound investigation of the Prostate and Testis
Gives us information on anatomical and functional aspects of these organs.
Cytological examination of testicular tissue.
If we are unable to detect spermatozoa in the ejaculate, we may proceed to aspiration or surgical exploration of the testis, isolating small amounts of tissue directly from the various testicular zones (upper, middle, lower, and epididymal poles) and analyze them to confirm azoospermia (absence of spermatozoa).
Immunobead Test (IBT) and other immunological tests
These tests determine the presence of antibodies on the sperm surface. In fact, antibodies may interfere with transport in the female genital tract or the fertilization process itself. In women, anti-sperm antibodies can also be highlighted in genital secretions (eg in cervical mucus) and in the blood.
Sperm DNA Integrity (Tunel Assay)
This test detects anomalies in the organization of the DNA in the mature spermatozoa). Sperm with normal morphology and motility but with anomalies in the DNA, called fragmentation, are sub-fertile.The Tunnel Assay is a direct method to detect damage to the nuclear genome and highlights and quantifies fragmented DNA within a total population of spermatozoa.
FISH Test (Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization) to test chromosome numbers
Aneuploidy is a condition in which the sperm cell does not have a correct number of chromosomes, which should be 23. It may have too many or too few. This evaluation is performed in fluorescence microscopy using DNA-specific probes for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y.